Automaten Solf bringt über 50 Jahre Erfahrung rund um den Bereich 'Unterhaltung' mit. Wir betreiben eigene, hochmoderne Spielstätten und betreuen mit. Öffnungszeiten von Solfs Moderne Spielstätten in Hans-Böckler-Str. 5, , Beuel, Bonn Deutschland inklusive Kontaktdaten wie Adresse. August Solf e. K. Inh. Jörg Schüller, Bonn, Amtsgericht Bonn HRA Netzwerk, Wirtschaftsinfos.
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Solfs Bonn You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article. VideoBLOOTSBRÖDER - Deckel (Bonn im Stiefel, LMS, 16.01.2014) Vad skall kommunen göra med gamla skolan? Enkäten bra underlag för planering 2. He was Super Mahjong originally a tanner by trade, and later became a journalist and author. Sukupuolijakauma, ikärakenne ja kielitilanne ilmenevät alla olevasta taulukosta. SOLF SOlf LandsbygdsFramtid SULVA Sulvan Maaseudun Tulevaisuus. Innehållsförteckning. Sisällysluettelo. s. 5 Inledning. s. 5 Johdanto. Her finder du links til kildetekster om Sønderjyllands historie gennem de seneste år: Kontrakt mellem Hans Brüggemann og menighedsråd runariannarun.com ved Walsrode Kirke Frederik 1.'s håndfæstning Dietrich Hermann Hegewisch' motto (helstatspatriotisme) Opfordring til indbyggerne i Kiel (helstatspatriotisme) Til de brødre, der er værdige til det danske navn. Solfs Moderne Spielstätten in Bonn, reviews by real people. Yelp is a fun and easy way to find, recommend and talk about what’s great and not so great in Bonn and beyond. Solfs Moderne Spielstätten - Arcades - Hans-Böckler-Str. 5, Bonn, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany - Phone Number - Yelp. Ideen-Fabrik GmbH. Lehenbergstraße 7 - 9 Westerheim Tel +49 Fax +49 [email protected] Adresse in Google Maps anzeigen. Given the COVID pandemic, call ahead to verify hours, and remember to practice social distancing.
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Macdonell, M. Aston, C. Fitzmaurice-Kellv, Mem- ber of the Spanish Academy. By Richard Garnett, C. By Gilbert Murray, M. By Edward Dowden, D.
By the Editor. By Prof. William P. Trent, of Columbia University. Wentworth Webster, M. Jules Vinson, and Professor and varied Schuchardt.
Catalan is so singul that it might well deserve separate treatment : its in- clusion here would be as unjustifiable as the inclusion of Provencal in a work dealing with French literature.
It has been thought that this treatment saves much digression. Excessive patriotism leads men of all lands to magnify their literary history ; yet it may be claimed for Spain, as for England, that she has used her models without compromising her originality, absorbing here, annexing there, and finally dominating her first masters.
But Spain's victorious course, splendid as it was in letters, arts, and arms, was comparatively brief. The heroic age of her literature extends over some hundred and fifty years, from the accession of Carlos Quinto to the death of Felipe IV.
This period has been treated, as it deserves, at greater length than any other. The need of com- pression, confronting me at every page, has compelled the omission of many writers.
I can only plead that I have used my discretion impartially, and I trust that no really representative figure will be found missing. I owe a very special acknow- rledgment to my friend Sr, D.
I have to thank Mr. Gosse for the great care with which he has read the proofs ; and to Mr. Henley, whose interest in all that touches Spain is of long stand- ing, I am indebted for much suggestive criticism.
For advice on some points of detail, I am obliged to Sr. Adolfo Bonilla y San Martin, and to Sr. Rafael Altamira y Crevea. As with men of Spanish stock, so with their letters : the national idiosyncrasy is emphatic — almost violent.
French literature is certainly more exquisite, more brilliant; English is loftier and more varied ; but in the capital qualities of originality, force, truth, and humour, the Castilian finds no superior.
The too-renowned Aliobiskarko Cantua is therefore a simple hoax : one might as well attribute Rule Britannia to Boadicea. Early in the twelfth century there was written a Latin Chronicle ascribed to Arch- bishop Turpin, an historical personage who ruled the see of Rheims some two hundred years before his false Chronicle was written.
However that may prove, no existing Basque song is much more than three hundred years old. He stands alone, isolated from his race. Though he lived at Sare, in the Basses Pyr?
But its vitality exceeds its reproductive force : it survives but does not multiply. Spain's later invaders — Iberians, Kelts, Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Alani, Suevi, Goths, and Arabs — have left but paltry traces on the prevailing form of Spanish speech, which derives from Latin by a descent more obvious, though not a whit more direct, than the descent of French.
So frail is the partition which divides the Latin mother from her noblest daughter, that late in the sixteenth century Fernando P6rez de Oliva wrote a treatise that was at once Latin and Spanish : a thing intelligible in either tongue and futile in both, though held for praiseworthy in an age when the best poets chose to string lines into a poly- glot rosary, without any distinction save that of antic dexterity.
For our purpose, the dawn of literature in Spain begins with the Roman conquest. All over Spain there arose the odiosa cantio, n", St Auciifitinn mill it, of Spanish children learning Latin ; and every school formed a fresh centre of Latin authority.
With their laws, the conquerors imposed their speech upon the broken tribes ; and these, in turn, invaded the capital of Latin politics and letters.
The breath of Spanish genius informs the Latinity of the Silver Age. Spanish literary aptitude, showing stronger in the pro- digious learning of the Elder Seneca, matures in the Itijo nant rhet oric and violent colouring of the Younger, in Lucan's declamatory eloquence and metallic music.
All these display in germ the characteristic points of strength and weakness which were to be developed in the evolution of Spanish literature ; and their influence on letters was matched by their countrymen's authority on affairs.
Qua nunc abibis in loca, PaUidula rigida nudula, Nee, ut soles, dabisjocos? Withal, individual success apart, the Spanish utterance of Latin teased the finer ear.
In Rome incorrections of speech were found where least expected. That Catullus shnnlH jftftf at Arrins — the forerunner of a London type — in the matter of aspirates is natural enough ; but even Augustus distressed the nice grammarian.
Inno- vation won the day. The century between Li vy and Tacitus shows differences of style inexplicable by the easy theory of varieties of temperament ; and the two centuries dividing Tacitus from St.
Augustine are marked by changes still more striking. This is but another illustration of the old maxim, that as the speed of falling bodies increases with distance, so literary de- cadences increase with time.
The Statelier sermo urbanus yielded to the sermo plebeius. Spanish soldiers had discovered " the fatal secret of empire, that emper- ors could be made elsewhere than at Rome " ; no less fatal was the discovery that Latin might be spoken without regard for Roman models.
As the power of classic forms waned, that of ecclesiastical examples grew. He clutches at, rather than grasps, the Roman verse tradi- tion, and, though he has no rhyming stanzas, he verges on rhyme in such performances as his Hymnus ad Galli Cantum.
It is doubtful whether the quantitative prosody, brought from Greece by lit- erary dandies, ever flourished without the circle of pro- fessional men of letters.
It is indisputable that the im- ported metrical rules, depending on the power of vowels and the position of consonants, were gradually super- seded by looser laws of syllabic quantity wherein accent and tonic-Stress were the main factors.
When the empire fell, Spain became the easy prey of northern barbarians, who held the country by the sword, and intermarried but little with its people.
No books, nO inscriptions of Gothic origin survive ; the Gongoristic letters ascribed to King Sisebut are not his work, and it is doubtful if the Goths bequeathed more than a few words to the Spanish vocabulary.
National sentiment was unborn. The clergy were alienated from their Gothic rulers. Gothic favourites were ap- j pointed to non-existent dioceses carrying huge revenues ; a single Goth held two sees simultaneously ; and, by way of balance, Toledo was misgoverned by two rival Gothic bishops.
Harassed by a severe penal code, t he Jew hailed the invading Arabs as a kindr ed, oriental, cir- cu mcised race ; and, with the heathen slaves, they went over to the conquerors.
So obscure is the history of the ensuing years that it has been said that the one thing certain is Roderic's name.
The more warlike Spaniards, " Patient of toil, serene among alarms. Inflexible in faith, invincible in arms.
I foregathered with Pelayo by the Cave of Covadonga, near Oviedo, among the Pyrenean chines, which they held against the forces of the Berber Alkamah and the renegade Archbishop, Don Opas.
AstlirianJullsidfiS the spirit of Spanish nationality was thus nurtured amid convulsions, the less hardy inhabitants of the south accepted their defeat.
Moors similarly placed in Christian provinces were dubbed Mud6jares. The literary traditions of Seneca, Lucan, and their brethren, passed through the hands of mediocrities like Pomponius Mela and Columella, to be delivered to Gains Vettius Aquilinus Juveneusrwho gave a rendering of the gospels, wherein the Virgilian hexameter is aped with a certain provincial vigour.
Among the breed of learned churchmen shines the name of St. Yet, Christian though he be, the imperial spirit in him fires at the thought of the multitu- dinous tribes welded into a single people, and he plainly tells you that a Roman citizen is as far above the brute barbarian as man is above beast.
As disciple of St. Augustine, and comrade of St. Jerome, Orosius would be remembered, even were he not the earliest historian of the world.
Like Prudentius, Orosius blends the passion of universal empire with the fervour of local sentiment. And this vast union of diverse races, all speaking one single tongue, all re- cognising one universal law, Orosius calls by the new naine of Romania.
Gregory the Great. Braulius, Bishop of Zaragoza, lives as the editor of his master Isidore's posthumous writings, and as the author of a hymn to that national saint, Millan.
Nor should we omit the names of St. Eugenius, a realist versifier of the day, and of St. Valerius, who had all the poetic gifts save the accomplishment of verse.
Naturalised foreigners, like the Hungarian St. Martin of Dumi, Archbishop of Braga, lent lustre to Spain at home. Spaniards, like Claude, Bishop of Turin, and like Prudentius Galindus, Bishop of Troyes, carried the national fame abroad : the first in writings which prove the permanence of Seneca's tradition, the second in polemics against the pantheists.
Doubtless in Spain, as elsewhere, much curious learning and inso- lent ignorance throve jowl by jowl. Like enough, some Spanish St. Ouen wrote down Homer, Menander, and Virgil as three plain blackguards ; like enough, the Spanish biographer of some local St Bavo confounded Tityrus with Virgil, and declared that Pisistratus' Athenian contemporaries spoke habitually in Latin.
The conceit of ignorance is a thing eternal. Withal, from the age of Prudentius onward, literature was sustained in one or othSr shape.
For a century after Tarik's landing there a pause, unbroken save for the Chronicle of the anony- mous Cordoban, too rashly identified as Isidore Pacensis.
C6rdoba's fame, as the world's fine flower. Thomas of Aquin. A stinging epigram summarises his achievement by saying that he philosophised the Talmud and talmudised philosophy.
In his Vad ha-Hazakah The Strong Hand Maimonides seeks to purge the Talmud of its pilpulim or casuistic commentaries, and to make the book a sufficient guide for practical life rather than to leave it a dust-heap for intellectual scavengers.
Hence he tends to a rational- istic interpretation of Scriptural records. This reaction was headed by apother , Spaniard, the C atalan m vstic. If their own countrymen failed to understand these poets, it would be surprisirlg had their stilted artifice filtered into Castilian.
It is un- scientific, and almost unreasonable, to assume that what baffles the greatest Arabists of to-day was plain to a wan- dering mummer a thousand, or even six hundred, years ago.
There is, however, a widespread belief that the metrical form of the Castilian romance a simple lyrico- narrative poem in octosyllabic assonants derives from Arabic models.
This theory is as untenable as that which attributed Provencal rhythms to Arab singers. No less erroneous is the idea that the entire assonantic system is an Arab invention.
To father Spanish romances and Provencal trobas upon them is a mere freak of fancy. The tacit basis of this theory is that the Span- iards took a rare interest in the intellectual side of Arab life; but the assumption is not justified by evidence.
Save in a casual passage, as that in the CrSnica General on the capture of Valencia, the Castilian historians steadily ignore their Arab rivals.
On the other hand, there is a class of romances fronterizos border ballads , such as that on the loss of Alhama, which is based on Arabic legends ; and at least one such ballad, that of Abenamar, may be the work of a Spanish-speaking Moor.
But these are isolated cases, are exceptional solely as regards the source of the subject, and nowise differ in form from the two thousand other ballads of the Roman-- ceros.
To find a case of real imitation we must pass to the fifteenth century, when that learned lyrist, the Marques de Santillana, deliberately experiments in the measures of an Arab zajaly a performance matched by a surviving fragment due to an anonymous poet in the Cancionero de Linares.
These are metrical audacities, resembling the revival of French ballades and rondeatix by artificers like Mr.
Dobson, Mr. Gosse, and Mr. Henley in our own day. This is not to say that Arabic popular poetry had no influence on such popular Spanish verse as the coplaSy of which some are appa- rently but translations of Arabic songs.
To this extent, in common with the rest of Europe, Spain owes the Arabs a debt which her picaresque novels and comedies have more than paid ; but here again the Arab acts as a mere middleman, taking the story of Kalilah and Dimna from the Sanskrit through the Pehlevi version, and then passing it by way of Spain to the rest of the Continent.
Nor should it be over- looked that Spaniards, disguised as Arabs, shared in the work of interpretation.
Patriots would per- suade you that the Arabs brought nothing to the stock of general culture, and the more thoroughgoing insist that the Spaniards lent more than they borrowed.
But the point may be pressed too far. Apart from the evidence of Paulus Alvarus Cor- yflubiensis, St. Nor can it be pleaded that this zeal was invariably due to official pressure : on the contrary, a caliph went the length of forbidding Spanish Jews and Christians to learn Arabic.
Yet, even so, the rude Latin of the unconquered north remained well-nigh intact. Save in isolated centres, it was spoken by countless Christians and by the Spaniards who had escaped to the African province of Tingitana.
Vast deduction must be made from the jeremiads of Paulus Alvarus Cordubiensis. Arabs tended more and more to ape the dress, the arms, the customs of the Spaniards ; and the Castilian-speaking Arab — the moro latinado — multiplied prodigiously.
Under och talet hade Solf ett tiotal lanthandlar. Vägnätet utvecklades och flera bussbolag har skött persontrafiken in till Vasa.
Tidigare, fram till talet, gick landsvägen in till Vasa över Toby stenbro. Föreningslivet fick ett uppsving efter kriget och i Jockes brev, som har getts ut i bokform, kan man läsa om stora bröllop, fester och stämmor.
Det hölls föredrag, gavs teaterföreställningar och det sjöngs och spelades mycket. Inflyttningen, som varit stor, ser ut att fortsätta.
Sulvan ensimmäiset kunnanvaltuustovaalit toimitettiin Valtuuston ensimmäisenä puheenjohtajana toimi Edvard Helenelund, josta tuli sittemmin myös kansanedustaja.
Talvi- ja jatkosodan aikana aika ja voimavarat menivät pitkälti selviämiseen vaikeiden aikojen yli. Rauhan jälkeen Sulvalla vallitsi talkoohenki, joka mahdollisti uuden alun.
Rappeutuneet talot kunnostettiin ja maalattiin useissa kylän maatiloissa keitetyllä punamullalla. Taloustilanteen kohentuessa myös talojen sisätilat saatettiin kunnostaa ja varustaa keskuslämmityksen ja WC:n kaltaisilla nykyaikaisilla teknisillä ratkaisuilla.
Maastamuutto Ruotsiin oli sodanjälkeisen suuren työttömyyden takia merkittävää, erityisesti nuorison keskuudessa. Tänä aikana perustettiin useita pienyrityksiä, mm.
Kaivojen poraus oli toinen menestyvä teollisuudenala ja Sulvalla sijaitsi peräti 11 kaivonporauskonetta.
Muut sodanjälkeisenä aikoina perustetut yritykset olivat pieniä työpajoja, sahoja, puusepän verstaita, yksi ompelimo ja jopa nappitehdas.
Tämän lisäksi alueelta löytyi kauppapuutarhoja, kasvihuoneita ja turkistarhoja, joista muutamia on yhä jäljellä. Sulvalla toimi ja luvulla kymmeniä kyläkauppoja.
Tieverkko kehittyi ja useampi bussiyhtiö huolehti matkustajaliikenteestä Vaasaan. Aiemmin, aina luvulle saakka, maantie Vaasaan kulki Tuovilan kivisillan yli.
Yhdistystoiminta aktivoitui sodan jälkeen ja kirjamuodossa julkaistussa Jockes brev saatettiin lukea merkittävistä häistä, juhlista ja kokouksista.
Alueella pidettiin esitelmiä, järjestettiin teatteriesityksiä sekä soitto- ja laulutilaisuuksia. Aina ja luvuille saakka väestönmäärä kasvoi verkkaisesti.
Sparlanda oli ensimmäinen kunnan suunnittelema asuinalue, tontit rakennettiin sinne luvun alussa. Tämän jälkeen alueelle on kaavoitettu ja rakennettu useampia asuinalueita.
Alueelle on muuttanut paljon väkeä ja kasvun odotetaan jatkuvan. Vad har Solf att erbjuda? Mitä Sulva voi tarjota? Sulvan maaseutuympäristö tarjoaa asumiseen ja varttumiseen turvallisen paikan.
Kyrkan invigdes Altaruppsatsen, som är inköpt i Hudiksvall , är en stor sevärdhet i den vackra kyrkan. Grundservicen är bra i Solf.
Lukukautena Sulvan koulussa on oppilasta. Söderfjärden on merkittävä viljelysalue ja merkittävä linnustonsa takia keväisin ja syksyisin. Pumppuasemalla puolestaan voit osallistua Söderfjärdenin kuivatustarinaan ja ihailla kauniita maisemia.
Kirkko, pappila, seurakuntakoti ja hautausmaa muodostavat kauniin kokonaisuuden. Kirkko vihittiin käyttöön Alttariosa on ostettu Hudiksvallista ja se on kauniin kirkon merkittävimmistä nähtävyyksistä.
Stundarsin ulkoilmamuseo on rakennettu seurakunnan maille ja kuuluu näin ollen alueeseen. Seurakunta tarjoaa toimintaa eri-ikäisille lapsille sekä nuorille, aikuisille ja eläkeläisille.
Laulu ja musiikki ovat aina olleet merkittäviä tekijöitä Sulvan kulttuurielämässä. Jousiorkesteri, puhallinorkesteri, kuoro ja lasten musiikkikoulu kuuluvat kylän kulttuuritarjontaan.
Föräldra-barn-träff vid Solf församlingshem. Vanhemmat ja lapset—ryhmä Sulvan seurakuntatalolla. Ett flertal föreningar ordnar ledda fritidsaktiviteter.
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An excellent read. I will certainly be back. Temporal and Vertical Abundance Analysis To compare bat species abundance by strata, season, and month, I estimated a three year-mean monthly species abundance, except for June, which is a 2 yearmean Values for abundance were standardized by divided the monthly abundance between the monthly effort mist net-hour.
Seasons were divided into dry season January to April , early rainy season May to August , and late rainy season September to December.
To compare distribution of understory and canopy captures, I calculated the number of individuals captured by species in a stratum during the whole study, including the recaptures in different months.
Differences in the species abundance distribution between understory and canopy were tested using a G' goodness-of-fit test. To examine 77 the relationship between strata preference and body size, I used the number of canopy captures, expressed as a percentage of the total species captures, and the mean body mass.
I tested with ANOVA the relationship between strata use and body size for a possible correlation of guilds: nectarivores, frugivores, Piper-Solanum bats, large and small fig-eating bats; and genera: Carollia, large and small Artibeus, categories Sall and Lehman Results Species Temporal Abundance A total of individuals belonging to 32 species of plant-visiting bats were captured from the individuals and 53 species recorded during this study Chapter 3.
The cloud forest had equal or more species of plant-visiting bats in the two guilds Appendix 2, Chapter 3.
Species abundance in nectarivorous and frugivorous bats varied over time. Most species of lowland and cloud forest plant-visiting bats had their peaks in abundance during the early rainy season or during the late rainy season Figures , The lowland and cloud forest species of nectarivorous bats had similar seasonal trends in abundance.
Both lowland G. Glossophaga had a peak in May and was mostly absent during the late rainy season Figure The four lowland Piper- 78 Solanum bats differed in their seasonal abundance.
I captured more individuals of the superabundant large fig-eating bat A. Among cloud forest Piper-Solanum bats, I captured more S.
Within S. Carollia perspicillata was only present in the cloud forest from August-October with its peak in August Figure Four species of small cloud forest fig-eating bats, A.
They had peaks in abundance on March, June, and August for A. Artibeus phaeotis was mainly present in the cloud forest during the late rainy season Figure The other two large frugivorous bats, A.
The peaks in abundance for Platyrrhinus vittatus was on June and October, for A. Bats Vertical Stratification Lowland plant-visiting bats clearly differentiated in their preference for a forest stratum Chapters 2, 3, Appendix B.
The lowland nectarivorous bat and three species of Carollia were captured more frequently in the understory than in the canopy G's - 7.
Canopy captures, expressed as percentage, of nectar- and Piper-eating bats G. For small fig-eating bats A. Bats Vertical Stratification by Season Some species of plant-visiting bats seasonally switched their foraging activity from one stratum to another, estimated as a seasonal change in the proportion of strata use Tables , , Figures , , , , , , Appendix B.
The lowland G. All lowland species of Carollia maintained their understory foraging behavior, but C. Temporal variation in species abundance measured as monthly bats captured per net hour of lowland and cloud forest nectarivorous a and cloud forest b and lowland c Piper-Solanum frugivorous bats.
Each monthly point represents a 3-year mean, except for June and cloud forest C. Species are Glossophaga soricina G.
Temporal variation in species abundance measured as monthly bats captured per net hour of cloud forest a large and b small fig-eating bats, and c lowland fig-eating bats.
Species are Platyrrhinus vittatus P. Distribution of log10 body massesin greats g of nectarivorous bats by percentage of canopy use captures in the cloud forest.
Species are Glossophaga commissarisi, Glossophaga soricina, Hylonycteris underwoodi, Lonchophylla mordax, Lonchophylla robusta, Anoura geoffroyi, and Anoura cultrata.
Distribution of logo of body mass in grams g of frugivorous bats by percentage of canopy use captures in the lowland forest. Species are Carollia: C.
Distribution of log10 of body mass in grams g of frugivorous bats by percentage of canopy use captures in the cloud forest at Fortuna. Lowland small Artibeus maintained their canopy behavior during the year although A.
All lowland large frugivorous bats, Artibeus, were captured mainly in the canopy but only the large sample size of A.
Among cloud forest Piper-Solanum bats, the abundant S. The other abundant species, S. Proportion of canopy to understory bat captures by season for lowland nectarivorous and frugivorous bats.
Proportions were calculated from 3 yearmean seasonal values of species abundance-. Temporal and vertical activity of a lowland Glossophaga soricina and a cloud forest Hylonycteris underwoodi nectarivorous bat.
Species abundance measured as monthly bats captured per net hour in the forest understory and canopy.
Each monthly bar represents a 3-year mean, except for June which is a 2-year mean. Early Rainy 7 mIU 0. Temporal and vertical differentiation of lowland Piper-Solanum bats, genera Carollia and Sturnira.
Each monthly point represents a 3-year mean, except for June which is a 2-year mean. Temporal and vertical differentiation of lowland small fig-eating bats, genus Artibeus.
Temporal and vertical activity of the large fig-eating bat, Artibeus jamaicensis in a lowland forest. Each monthly bar represents a 3-year mean, except for June which is 2-year mean.
Temporal and vertical differentiation of cloud forest Piper-Solanum bats, genera Carollia and Sturnira. Each bar represents a 3-year mean, except for June and C.
I deeply thank my research supervisors in Panama, Dr. Charles O. Eustorgio Mendez for his support and for being a constant source of inspiration.
I also thank the diplomat student Sabine Muller Universitat Tubingen for collaborating on the acoustic bat inventory and for helping with the mist netting.
Carrion de Samudio for moral support and help during the planning, field, and writing stages; and to Rogelio Samudio for helping me get additional funds for the study.
This study compared temporal and spatial bat diversity and ecology patterns between a lowland forest and a cloud forest in western Pacific Panama.
Some bat species departed from the male to female proportion in both forests, whereas other species varied the sex ratio PAGE 9 with forest type and season.
To fill the gap in bat ecological 1 PAGE 11 2 theory, it is necessary to gather new data from standardized, long-term studies that integrate a variety of inventory methods Kalko The objective of this work is to examine how the diversity and ecological patterns of two bat communities in western Pacific Panama a lowland forest and a cloud forest vary spatially and temporally.
Studies showed that bat species richness in the Neotropics increases with rainfall and vegetation complexity in lowland forest, but decreases with elevation Koopman , Graham , Fleming a, Munoz , , Patterson et al.
In Chapter 2, 1 examine PAGE 12 3 the influence of season and forest type on the bat vertical stratification and adult sex ratio in these two communities by concentrating the analysis on the most common species of nectarivorous and frugivorous bats.
Additionally, these studies showed that bat species, especially frugivores, seasonally fluctuate in their populations and switch PAGE 13 4 strata, suggesting that these patterns can be widespread among bats and can operate as a mechanism of coexistence.
In Chapter 4, 1 investigated the extent to which nectarivorous and frugivorous bat species differentiate in vertical and temporal components. I mainly focused on species of the highly diverse and abundant bat genera: Artibeus, Stumira, and Carollia.
Bats have been considered good indicators of forest conditions because of 5 PAGE 15 6 their sensibility to forest disturbance Johns et al.
In Panama, the understory bat C. This was accomplished by concentrating on the most common species of nectarivorous and frugivorous bats PAGE 16 7 captured in these forests.
The reserve ranges in elevation from m Diaz , but the study site spans an elevational range of m. It shows a montane oceanic climate McKay based on De Martonne , with mean annual ambient temperature of 19 2 C and annual rainfall of mm Cavelier , McKay Both study sites are important for conserving biodiversity and establishing biological corridors in Panama.
Batipa is the second-largest remaining fragment of lowland forest in Chiriquf Tovar , and Fortuna is one of the best-preserved mountain forests in Panama Diaz Total sampling involved mist net hours mnh during nights lowlands mnh during nights, cloud forest mnh during 1 10 nights.
PAGE 22 13 tension, habitat structure, differences in vertical movements and the proportion of time spent within the 2-m sampling zone, differences in flight distance, the ability of bats to detect the presence of nets, and differences in flight frequency MacArthur and MacArthur , Karr , Kunz and Kurta Rainfall and Temperature Records I obtained local records of rainfall and temperature data from the Empresa de Transmision Electrica S.
I have 4 years of records for annual and monthly rainfall from the cloud forest m and from Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias 35 m , which is 20 km from the study site in the lowlands.
The records for ambient temperature TJ include 4 years of annual and monthly means, maximal 7jnax , and minimal 7 a min temperatures from FCA in the lowlands and the cloud forest.
In , 1 established two 20 x 50 m 0. I measured the diameter at breast height DBH , stem diameter at 1. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate differences in this index over years, across seasons, and between strata and forests for the most abundant nectarivores and frugivores Sail and Lehman A heterogeneity G 2 goodness-of-fit test was used to determine differences in strata preference among seasons and differences in sex ratio according to season and strata.
I compared annual rainfall using G 2 goodness-of-fit test and mean monthly precipitation and T, T a max, and Train between sites using a f-test.
Mean solid bars and standard deviation of monthly rainfall in millimeters mm for meteorological stations in a cloud forest Fortuna and a lowland site Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias with the elevations expressed in meters m.
PAGE 28 19 Table Artibeus jamaicensis differed with forest type in the frequency use of strata. Carollia perspicillata has been reported in lowland Panama and Costa Rica with an adult sex ratio of Fleming , Thies , Stoner , this study , but this species in the cloud forest had a femalebiased sex ratio.
Artibeus jamaicensis, also with some degree of migratory behavior Chapter 4 , had a male biased sex ratio, which differed from its lowland population.
In Costa Rican dry forests this species also has a period with more males, but it occurs during the dry season or PAGE 37 28 early rainy season Fleming , Stoner They play important roles as pollinators, 29 PAGE 39 30 seed dispersers, and predators of invertebrates and small vertebrates Humphrey and Bonaccorso , Findley , Kalko and occupy many forest types Humphrey and Bonaccorso , Fleming , Willig and Mares Considering the role of the forest canopy in plant and animal ecology is necessary when estimating species diversity and the mechanisms that underlie it Lowman and Nadkami , DeVries et al.
PAGE 40 31 I conducted a 3. This long-term study is the first in Panama to examine the bat diversity outside of the Canal Area in Panama and to sample canopy bats in a mid-elevation Neotropical cloud forest.
Finally, I compare lowland and midelevation sites from Panama, Central America, and South America, and discuss whether patterns previously observed in bat community studies are observed at the two Panamanian bat communities I studied.
The reserve ranges in elevation from to m Dfaz , but the study site spans an elevation range of m. Species abundance number of individuals per species distribution was analyzed first as the species abundance frequency distribution, in which the number of species were plotted against the log 2 of abundance Preston , Magurran , Hubbell PAGE 44 35 Second, it was analyzed as the dominance-diversity curve distribution species rankabundance in which species were ranked according to their abundance on a log 10 arithmetic scale Whittaker Community similarity or beta 3 diversity was calculated with two measures: Sorensen index C s and Sorensen quantitative index C N.
The former measures only species presence-absence taxonomy and takes no account of the abundance of species, whereas the other measures both species presence-absence and abundance function Magurran PAGE 45 36 All equations used to calculate the a-, 3-, and similarity indexes can be found in Magurran and Krebs When the distribution of data was not normal I used the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance Shapiro and Wilk , or when the means had unequal variance I used the Welch ANOVA Sail and Lehman to test for seasonal differences in species richness and abundance.
Food habit classification PAGE 46 37 refers to the main food consumed by a species. Acoustic monitoring was done for 72 hrs during 12 nights at each site Muller I found no differences between forests in the species richness within bat families.
PAGE 48 39 Table Proportion of number of species to number of genera. The cloud forest showed a more equal abundance distribution among species than the lowland forest E : 0.
Species richness within insectivore and piscivore bat families in a lowland forest and cloud forest in Panama. Subfamilies are the insect-omnivorouscamivorous Phyllostominae Phy , nectarivore Glossophaginae Glo , and frugivore Carollinae Ca and Stenodermatinae Ste.
PAGE 54 45 Figure Bat species accumulation curves from two forests in Panama at different elevations during July Dec Relative abundance distributions are plotted by doubling classes of abundance log 2 , following the method of Preston Log 10 of species abundance partitioning by lowland forest Batipa: 35 species and cloud forest Fortuna: 34 species bat species rank.
Log 10 of species abundance partitioned by total 35 species , canopy 33 species , and understory 29 species bat species rank.
PAGE 59 50 strata. Forest strata in the cloud forest were more taxonomically C; 0. Total are raw values that did not include bat recaptures or the count of species more than one time.
PAGE 62 53 Figure PAGE 63 54 Figure Temporal and spatial variation in the community of lowland bats from Batipa.
Temporal and spatial variation in the community of cloud forest bats from Fortuna. The uncluttered aerial insectivores were members of the families Molossidae and Emballonuridae in the lowlands, but Molossidae only in the cloud forest, whereas the sanguivore of the Phyllostomidae Desmodontinae occurred at both forests.
In decreasing order of species richness, the body mass ranges of 1 g small and PAGE 67 58 Niche Matrix The cells with the most species in the lowland forest were PAGE 68 59 Within the omnivore guild, the two rare small size g species.
Lampronycterys brachyotis and Trinycteris nicefori segregated by strata use. Niche matrix of guild-body mass for 51 species of bats recorded in lowland forest of Batipa, Chiriqui, Panama with a combined mist-netting and acoustic method.
Niche matrix of guild-body mass for 52 species of bats recorded in cloud forest of Fortuna, Chiriquf, Panama with a combined mist netting and acoustic method.
The smallest PAGE 70 61 and genera among frugivore size classes at both sites. In the cloud forest, two medium size abundant species differed by strata Stumira spp.
Discussion By extending standardized understory and canopy sampling beyond the previous one-year single-community study Bonaccorso , Bonaccorso and Humphrey , I have firmly established that the diversity of bat communities varies spatially and temporally.
Therefore, I believe this study offers a PAGE 71 62 standard means for comparing species diversity among sites, and exploring general spatial and temporal patterns of bats in tropical forest communities.
PAGE 72 63 The distribution of species richness by abundance categories rare-superabundant was similar in the two forests, showing the typical pattern of few abundant and more less abundant species Kalko These forests were more similar in their taxonomic C s than in their functional C N species composition.
If only the understory had been sampled in my study, the cloud forest would have appeared to have low bat abundance and some species PAGE 73 64 would have been incorrectly categorized as uncommon-rare.
The differences in climate and plant diversity between sites Chapter 2 may be responsible, through their influence on the availability of food and roost resources, for the differences in seasonal diversity PAGE 74 65 patterns between these bat communities Kalko et al.
PAGE 77 68 However, lowland species differentiated in strata use. The genera Carollia and Stumira are considered understory bats that feed mainly in shrubs of the Piperaceae and Solanaceae Fleming b, The Stenodermatinae except Stumira are classified as canopy bats that feed mainly on fruits from Ficus Moraceae trees Bonaccorso , Handley et al.
Stumira lilium, which shows an overlap in diet and size with Carollia Fleming b, , Willig , differed in strata use from the similar in size and abundance C.
The reason for this is unknown, but the availability of their preferred fruit species or suitable roosts may have influenced their abundance Morrison , PAGE 79 70 Bonaccorso and Humphrey , Kalko et al.
Two cloud forest medium-sized species of Stumira were similar in abundance but differentiated in strata use. Finally, this study encourages PAGE 80 71 comparisons of tropical bat communities at other lowland and highland sites, and points to a means of advancing our understanding of how spatial and temporal factors may influence tropical bat diversity and in consequence how to conserve both bats and their habitats.
Subsequently, more complete knowledge about resources 72 PAGE 82 73 and habitat requirements of species has improved the descriptions of Neotropical bat guilds Bonaccorso , Kalko , Schnitzler and Kalko PAGE 83 74 This 3.
The study focuses on species from highly diverse genera: Artibeus, Stumira, and Carollia. The reserve comprises 19, ha of continuous lower mountain rainforest Cavelier , Diaz , classified as a tropical ombrophilous cloud forest Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg PAGE 85 76 Captured bats were placed in individual cloth bags, identified, marked, and released within one hour of capture.
Differences in the species abundance distribution between understory and canopy were tested using a G 2 goodness-of-fit test.
To examine PAGE 86 77 the relationship between strata preference and body size, I used the number of canopy captures, expressed as a percentage of the total species captures, and the mean body mass.
I tested with ANOVA the relationship between strata use and body size for a possible correlation of guilds: nectarivores, frugivores, Piper-Solanum bats, large and small fig-eating bats; and genera: Carollia, large and small Artibeus, categories Sail and Lehman T emporal variation in species abundance measured as monthly bats captured per net hour of lowland and cloud forest nectarivorous a and cloud forest b and lowland c Piper-Solamm frugivorous bats.
Distribution of log 10 body massesin greams g of nectarivorous bats by percentage of canopy use captures in the cloud forest. Species are Glossophaga commissarisi , Glossophaga soricina, Hylonycteris underwoodi , Lonchophylla mordax, Lonchophylla robusta , Anoura geoffroyi , and Anoura cultrata.
Distribution of log ] of body mass in grams g of frugivorous bats by percentage of canopy use captures in the lowland forest.
Distribution of log 1Q of body mass in grams g of frugivorous bats by percentage of canopy use captures in the cloud forest at Fortuna. Species are Carollia.
PAGE 96 87 Figure Each monthly bar represents a 3-year 1 mean, except for June which is a 2-year mean. Each monthly point represents a 3 -year mean, except for June which is a 2-year mean.Boinski Department of Anthropology, UF for her critical comments and advice regarding this study. Full Board optional. It deals with the story of Joseph in Egypt, not accord- ing to the Old Testament narrative, but in general con- formity with the version found in the eleventh sura Lotto Kreuzgesetz the Ku'ran, though the Australische Getränke does Europameister Wetten hesitate to Poker 888 Download duce variants and amplifications of his own Jackpot Dmax.De, as stanza 31 when the wolf speaks to the patriarch whose Faze Banks it is supposed to have slain. Site elevation for cloud forest was m. The reserve comprises 19, Babbel .De of continuous lower Solfs Bonn rainforest CavelierDiazand is classified as a tropical Paul Gaida cloud forest Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg NVcbli-sl, Ci-o. Distribution of log 1Q of body mass in grams g of frugivorous bats by percentage of canopy Aki G captures in the cloud forest at Fortuna. TO LET. The two similar abundant species of small size g were differentiated by strata, one was an understory bat M. VJipl, fil Wllllum-streel. In Chapter 4, 1 investigated the extent to which nectarivorous and frugivorous bat species differentiate in vertical and temporal components. The increase in females in the cloud forest, where this species showed a migratory pattern Chapter 4could represent immigration of females from areas Gegenteil Spontan of my study site, as has been argued by Fleming The reserve ranges in elevation from to m Diazbut the study site spans an elevation range of m. Subscribe to read the entire article.